Male Altamira Oriole is larger and has an orange shoulder. Male Bullock's Oriole has a white wing patch and a black eyeline. Male Baltimore Oriole has a black head. Rare stray Streak-backed Oriole has streaked, not black, back. Female Baltimore and Bullock's Orioles have grayer bellies than female Hooded Orioles. Female Orchard Oriole very similar but has a less decurved bill.
Length and wingspan from: Robbins, C.S., Bruun, B., Zim, H.S., (1966). Birds of North America. New York: Western Publishing Company, Inc.