# Details: Annual Indices of Abundance

## Introduction

Annual indices of abundance are estimated as residuals from
the route-regressions. Using the regional trend estimate and a
regional average count, a line can be drawn that depicts the
predicted trend in counts over time. We define annual indices as
deviations from this regional predicted trend. These annual
indices can be thought of as residual variation remaining after
trend is modeled. For each route in the region, we estimate
observer effects on each route using the regression described
above, but with the slope parameter fixed as the regional estimate.

Residuals are calculated for each year the route was run.
Residuals from all routes are averaged by year, and the yearly
averages are then added to the yearly counts from the predicted
trend line. Resulting estimates of annual indices are then
exponentiated to produce the yearly annual indices on the linear
scale. This procedure produces both a smooth trend line and a
yearly index of abundance. The indexes are smoothed using a
procedure such as LOESS to allow observation of patterns in the
data. For more discussion of the method, see Sauer and Geissler
(1990).

### Literature Cited

Sauer, J. R., and P. H. Geissler. 1990. Annual indices from
route regression analyses. Pages 58-62 in J. R. Sauer
and S. Droege, eds. Survey designs and statistical
methods for the estimation of avian population trends.
U. S. Fish. Wildl. Serv., Biol. Rept. 90(1).